Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Toxicity

Like other plant species in the family Moraceae, contact with the milky sap of Ficus carica followed by exposure to ultraviolet light can cause phytophotodermatitis, a potentially serious skin inflammation. Although the plant is not poisonous per se, F. carica is listed in the FDA Database of Poisonous Plants.

Organic chemical compounds called furanocoumarins are known to cause phytophotodermatitis in humans. The common fig contains significant quantities of two furanocoumarins, psoralen and bergapten. The essential oil of fig leaves contains more than 10% psoralen, the highest concentration of any organic compound isolated from fig leaves. Psoralen appears to be the primary furanocoumarin compound responsible for fig leaf-induced phytophotodermatitis.

Psoralen and bergapten are found chiefly in the milky sap of the leaves and shoots of F. carica but not the fruits. Neither psoralen nor bergapten were detected in the essential oil of fig fruits. Thus there is no conclusive evidence that fig fruits cause phytophotodermatitis.

Вредители инжира

Плоды инжира привлекают внимание многих вредителей. Самыми распространенными выступают следующие:. Птицы

Как только плоды созревают, они попадают во внимание птиц. Сочные фрукты являются для птиц прекрасным лакомством. Чтобы защитить сад, необходимо установить отпугивающие элементы

Птицы

Как только плоды созревают, они попадают во внимание птиц. Сочные фрукты являются для птиц прекрасным лакомством

Чтобы защитить сад, необходимо установить отпугивающие элементы.

Инжирная листоблошка. Опасное насекомое, на молодых ветвях откладывает яйца. Если своевременно не обнаружить вредителей, из яиц появятся взрослые особи. Листоблошка питается клеточным соком. Она прокалывает листочек, в результате чего дерево теряет все свои силы.

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Насекомое способно перемещаться от дерева к дереву, нанося саду огромный ущерб.

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Кроме того, листоблошка является переносчиком вирусов. Если вовремя не начать борьбу с насекомым, деревья могут заболеть и погибнуть. Обработка деревьев такими препаратами, как Моспилан или Актара поможет защитить сад и избавиться от вредителя.

Инжирный лубоед. В период вегетации развивается 2 поколения насекомых. Чаще всего они располагаются на ослабленных деревьях. Личинки делают ходы, что приводит к отмиранию коры. Со временем лубоеды уничтожают весь ствол, в результате чего дерево погибает. Ели же этого не происходит, то пораженное растение уже плодоносить не будет.

Насекомое является разносчиком заболеваний. Если вовремя не начать лечение, деревья будут поражены раком.

Чтобы защитить сад от лубоеда, необходимо тщательно осматривать деревья. Если имеются механические повреждения, их следует обработать масляной краской. Поврежденные участки и засохшие ветви нужно сжечь.

Избавиться от яиц и спор грибов можно с помощью железного купороса. Для этого деревья необходимо опрыскать приготовленным раствором. Лучше всего проводить обработку в период покоя, отличное время – это конец февраля или начало марта. Если же опрыскивание в зимний период не было выполнено, то процедуру стоит провести ранней весной. Для этого потребуется 4%-ный раствор бордосской жидкости.

Моле-листовертка инжирная. Еще один опасный вредитель, который приносит саду огромный ущерб. Маленькая бабочка имеет красно-коричневый окрас, гусеницы же представлены желтым оттенком. Питаются насекомые листовой частью. Кроме того, они способны повреждать плоды. Поврежденные фрукты в пищу не годятся, от них придется избавиться.

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Чтобы защитить деревья. Необходимо тщательно их осматривать. При появлении насекомых требуется провести обработку химическими препаратами. Если этого не сделать, можно потерять значительную часть урожая.

Инжир – очень вкусный фрукт. Кроме того, он известен и своими полезными свойствами. Чтобы собрать качественный урожай, за садом необходимо правильно ухаживать.

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Нельзя забывать о профилактических мерах и обработке деревьев от вредителей и заболеваний.

Формы фикуса ползучего и его размножение с фото

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica   Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Фикус ползучий, или Фикус малорослый (Ficus pumila L. (F. repens hort., non Willd.) Изящное ампельное растение. Стебли покрыты мелкими (2-2,5 см) сердцевидно-овальными листьями ярко-зеленого цвета. На нижней стороне стеблей есть корни – присоски, которыми фикус прикрепляется к любой опоре. Свешивающиеся из горшка побеги при малейшем недостатке воды легко теряют листья. Поэтому в горшок, в котором растет фикус ползучий, надо ставить вертикально кусок пробки, доски или ветку дерева. При постоянном опрыскивании они в скором времени покрываются хорошо облиственными побегами фикуса, которые прикрепляются к ним с помощью корней-присосок.

Имеется несколько форм:

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica   Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

F. pumila var. minima – листья мелкие, длиной до 1–1,25 см.

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica   Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

F. pumila var. macrophylla – листья крупные.

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica   Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Variegata – листья с белой каймой.

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica   Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Sunny – кайма не сплошная, а в виде отдельных пятен.

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica   Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

White Sunny – с широкой кремовой каймой.

Этот вид предоставляет неограниченные возможности для проявления творческой фантазии владельцев.

Обратите внимание на фото – ползучий фикус можно использовать как почвопокровное или ампельное растение:

Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica   Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus caricaФикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica   Фикус карика, или инжир Ficus carica

Им декорируют вертикальные поверхности, однако необходимо помнить о повышенной требовательности данного вида к влажности воздуха. В горшок с растением можно вставить фигурно вырезанный кусок доски, оригинальной формы ветку, обернуть их мхом и закрепить. Фикус легко «обрастает» эти опоры, формируя оригинальные зеленые фигуры. Необходимо лишь постоянно опрыскивать растение и увлажнять опору, так как при малейшем недостатке влаги растение легко сбрасывает листья.

Размножение фикуса ползучего производится весной черенкованием. Черенки укореняются только под стеклом в тепле при обильном опрыскивании. После укоренения их пересаживают в маленькие горшки в смесь из дерновой, листовой, перегнойной земли и песка (1:1:1:1/2)

Молодые растения осторожно и постепенно приучают к сухому комнатному воздуху

In religion and mythology

The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden showing Adam and Eve with and without fig leaves, by Masaccio, 1426–1427

In the Biblical Book of Genesis, Adam and Eve clad themselves with fig leaves (Genesis 3:7) after eating the “forbidden fruit” from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Likewise, fig leaves, or depictions of fig leaves, have long been used to cover the genitals of nude figures in painting and sculpture, for example in Masaccio’s The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Moreover, according to Haggadah (Jewish text), the forbidden fruit of the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden was not an apple, but a fig.

The Book of Deuteronomy specifies the fig as one of the Seven Species (Deuteronomy 8:7-8), describing the fertility of the land of Canaan. This is a set of seven plants indigenous to the Middle East that together can provide food all year round. The list is organized by date of harvest, with the fig being fourth due to its main crop ripening during summer.

Babylonian Ishtar for example took the form of the divine fig tree Xikum, the “primeval mother at the central place of the earth”, protectress of the savior Tammuz. Moreover, fig and the fig tree were closely linked with female sexuality. In Barbara Walker’s encyclopedia on Goddess symbols we learn that the fig leaf is the conventional form of the yoni. “This may account for the common use of the fig tree as a symbol of man’s enlightenment, which was formerly supposed to come through his connection with the female principle.” The enlightenment that came after eating the forbidden fruit, i.e. fig, may also imply that the knowledge forbidden by the Judeo-Christian God was knowledge of specifically female sexuality, which patriarchal societies have always tried to suppress[citation needed]. The fig tree Ruminalis was worshiped as a symbol of the Goddess herself in the Palantine temple in Rome.

In the Bible (Matthew 21:18–22 and Mark 11:12–14, 19–21) is the account of Jesus finding a fig tree when he was hungry; the tree had leaves on it, but no fruit. Jesus then curses the fig tree, which withers.

The biblical quote “each man under his own vine and fig tree” (Micah 4:4) has been used to denote peace and prosperity. It was commonly quoted to refer to the life that would be led by settlers in the American West, and was used by Theodor Herzl in his depiction of the future Jewish Homeland: “We are a commonwealth. In form it is new, but in purpose very ancient. Our aim is mentioned in the First Book of Kings: ‘Judah and Israel shall dwell securely, each man under his own vine and fig tree, from Dan to Beersheba”. United States President George Washington, writing in 1790 to the Touro Synagogue of Newport, Rhode Island, extended the metaphor to denote the equality of all Americans regardless of faith.

Buddha achieved enlightenment under the bodhi tree, a large and old sacred fig tree (Ficus religiosa, or Pipal).

Sura 95 of the Qur’an is named al-Tīn (Arabic for “The Fig”), as it opens with the oath “By the fig and the olive.” The fruit is also mentioned elsewhere in the Qur’an. Within the Hadith, Sahih al-Bukhari records Muhammad stating: “If I had to mention a fruit that descended from paradise, I would say this is it because the paradisiacal fruits do not have pits…eat from these fruits for they prevent hemorrhoids, prevent piles and help gout.”

In Greek mythology, the god Apollo sends a crow to collect water from a stream for him. The crow sees a fig tree and waits for the figs to ripen, tempted by the fruit. He knows that he is late and that his tardiness will be punished, so he gets a snake from the stream and collects the water. He presents Apollo with the water and uses the snake as an excuse. Apollo sees through the crow’s lie and throws the crow, goblet, and snake into the sky where they form the constellations Hydra, Crater, and Corvus.

References

  1. 1771 illustration from Trew, C.J., Plantae selectae quarum imagines ad exemplaria naturalia Londini, in hortis curiosorum nutrit, vol. 8: t. 73 (1771), drawing by G.D. Ehret
  2. ^ The Fig: its History, Culture, and Curing, Gustavus A. Eisen, Washington, Govt. print. off., 1901
  3. RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
  4. T.F. Hoad, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford University Press, 1986, page 171a.
  5. Condit, Ira J. (1947) The Fig; Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. Kislev et al. (2006a, b), Lev-Yadun et al. (2006)
  10. ^ Leroi, Armand Marie (2014). The Lagoon: How Aristotle Invented Science. Bloomsbury. pp. 244–247. ISBN 978-1-4088-3622-4.
  11. Mary Beard (2013). . p. .
  12. Cassius Dio. Roman History 56.30.
  13. Mary Beard (2013). . p. .
  14. ^ Roeding, George C. (1903) The Smyrna Fig: At Home and Abroad; published by the author, Fresno, CA, USA
  15. ^ Storey, W.B, Enderud, J.E., Saleeb, W.F., & Mauer, E.M. (1977) The Fig, Ficus carica Linnaeus: Its Biology, History, Culture, and Utilization, Vol. 13 #2,3,4; Jurupa Mountains Cultural Center, Riverside, CA, USA
  16. ^
  17. Christoph Seiler: Feigen aus dem eigenen Garten (English: Figs from your own garden), Stuttgart 2016, page 64.
  18. Christoph Seiler: Feigen aus dem eigenen Garten. Stuttgart 2016, pages 75 and 78.
  19. ^
  20. ^ Janick, Jules & Moore, James (ors) (1975) Advances in Fruit Breeding; pgs 568-588: Figs, by Storey, W.B.; Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  21. ^ Van Deynze, Allen (or) (2008) 100 years of breeding: UC Davis Plant Breeding Program. Published by the Dean’s Office, Department of Plant Sciences, & Seed Biotechnology Center, Davis, CA, USA
  22. ^
  23. Vinson (1999)
  24. Landranco, Guido (2001). Mediċina popolari ta’ l-imgħoddi fil-gżejjer Maltin [Popular medicine of the past in the Maltese islands] (in Maltese). Valletta, Malta: Klabb Kotba Maltin. ISBN 99909-75-97-3.
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. Walker, Barbara (1988). The Woman’s Dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects. Harper One. p. 484.
  28. Eric Brandon Roberts (2012). The Parables of Jesus Christ:: A Brief Analysis. Booktango. ISBN .
  29. A review of the early Miocene Mastixioid flora of the Kristina Mine at Hrádek nad Nisou in North Bohemia, The Czech Republic, January 2012 by F. Holý, Z. Kvaček and Vasilis Teodoridis – ACTA MUSEI NATIONALIS PRAGAE Series B – Historia Naturalis • vol. 68 • 2012 • no. 3–4 • pp. 53–118

Food

Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, and used in jam-making. Most commercial production is in dried or otherwise processed forms, since the ripe fruit does not transport well, and once picked does not keep well. The widely produced fig roll is a biscuit (cookie) with a filling made from figs.

Fresh figs are in season[where?] from August through to early October. Fresh figs used in cooking should be plump and soft, and without bruising or splits. If they smell sour, the figs have become over-ripe. Slightly under-ripe figs can be kept at room temperature for 1–2 days to ripen before serving. Figs are most flavorful at room temperature.

Nutrition

Dried figs

Figs, dried, uncooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,041 kJ (249 kcal)
63.9 g
Sugars 47.9 g
Dietary fiber 9.8 g
0.93 g
3.3 g
Vitamins Quantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv. 0% 0 μg
Thiamine (B1) 7% 0.085 mg
Riboflavin (B2) 7% 0.082 mg
Niacin (B3) 4% 0.62 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 9% 0.43 mg
Vitamin B6 8% 0.11 mg
Folate (B9) 2% 9 μg
Vitamin C 1% 1 mg
Vitamin E 2% 0.35 mg
Vitamin K 15% 15.6 μg
Minerals Quantity %DV
16% 162 mg
Iron 15% 2 mg
Magnesium 19% 68 mg
24% 0.51 mg
10% 67 mg
Potassium 14% 680 mg
Sodium 1% 10 mg
6% 0.55 mg
  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Raw figs are a good source (14% of the Daily Value, DV) of dietary fiber per 100-gram serving (74 calories), but otherwise do not supply essential nutrients in significant content (see table).

In a 100-gram serving providing 229 calories, dried figs are a rich source (more than 20% DV) of dietary fiber and the essential mineral, manganese (26% DV), while several other dietary minerals are in moderate-to-low content.

In art and literature

Still life Mesa (“Table”) with dried figs and other fruits in a bowl by Clara Peeters, 1611

In Aristophanes’ Lysistrata one of the women boasts about the “curriculum” of initiation rites she went through to become an adult woman (Lys. 641–7). As her final accomplishment before marriage, when she was already a fair girl, she bore the basket as a kanephoros, wearing a necklace of dried figs.

In the course of his campaign to persuade the Roman Republic to pursue a third Punic War, Cato the Elder produced before the Senate a handful of fresh figs, said to be from Carthage. This showed its proximity to Rome (and hence the threat), and also accused the Senate of weakness and effeminacy: figs were associated with femininity, owing to the appearance of the inside of the fruit.

One of many explanations for the origin of the word “sycophant” (from the Ancient Greek συκοφάντης sykophántēs) is that it refers to the vulgar gesture of showing the fig.

Since the flower is invisible, there are various idioms related to it in languages around the world. In a Bengali idiom as used in tumi yēna ḍumurēr phul hay.ē gēlē (তুমি যেন ডুমুরের ফুল হয়ে গেলে), i.e., ‘you have become (invisible like) the fig flower (doomurer phool)’. There is a Hindi idiom related to flower of fig tree, गूलर का फूल (gūlar kā phūl i.e. flower of fig) means something that just would not ever see i.e. rare of the rarest In Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh state of India apart from standard Hindi idiom a variant is also used; in the region it is assumed that if something or work or job contains flower of fig it will not get finished.

Gular ka phool (flower of fig) is a collection of poetry in written in Hindi by Rajiv Kumar Trigarti.

A poem in Telugu written by Yogi Vemana, says “Medi pandu chuda melimayyi undunu, potta vippi chuda purugulundunu”, “The fig fruit looks harmless but once you open you find tiny insects in there”. The phrase is comparable with the English phrase “Don’t judge a book by its cover”.

Biology

Description

Ficus carica is a gynodioecious, i. e., functionally dioecious,deciduous tree or large shrub that grows up to 7–10 metres (23–33 ft) tall, with smooth white bark. Its fragrant foliage is 12–25 centimetres (4.7–9.8 in) long and 10–18 centimetres (3.9–7.1 in) wide, and deeply lobed with 3 or 5 lobes. The complex inflorescence consists of a hollow fleshy structure denominated the “syconium”, which is lined with numerous unisexual flowers. The flowers are not visible outside the syconium because they bloom inside the infructescence. Although commonly denominated a “fruit”, the fig is in truth the infructescence or scion of the tree, known as a “false fruit” or “multiple fruit”, which bears the flowers and seeds. It is a hollow-ended stem that contains many flowers. The small orifice, denominated the “ostiole”, that is visible on the middle of the fruit is a narrow passage, which allows the specialized fig wasp, Blastophaga psenes to enter the fruit and pollinate the flowers, after which the fruit grows seeds. See .

The edible fruit consists of the mature syconium that contains numerous one-seeded fruits, denominated “druplets”. The fruit is 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in) long, with a green skin that sometimes ripens toward purple or brown. Ficus carica has milky sap, thus rendering it a laticifer. The sap of the green parts is an irritant to human skin.

Habitat

Mountain fig tree in Zibad

The common fig tree has been cultivated since ancient times and grows wild in dry and sunny locations with deep and fresh soil, and in rocky locations that are at sea level to 1,700 metres in elevation. It prefers relatively porous and freely draining soil, and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Unlike other fig species, Ficus carica does not always require pollination by a wasp or from another tree, because the fig wasp, Blastophaga psenes can pollinate it so as to produce seeds. Fig wasps are not present to pollinate in colder nations, e. g. the United Kingdom.

Bud

Leaves and immature fruit

Figs in various stages of ripening

The plant tolerates seasonal drought, and the Middle Eastern and Merranean climates are especially suitable to it. Situated in a favorable habitat, mature specimens can grow to considerable size as large, dense, shade trees. Its aggressive root system precludes its cultivation in many urban locations, yet in nature this characteristic helps the plant to root in the most inhospitable locations. Having a great need of water, it is mostly a phreatophyte that extracts the needed water from sources in or on the ground. Consequently, it frequently grows in locations with standing or running water, e. g. in valleys of rivers and in ravines that collect water. The deeply rooted plant searches for groundwater in aquifers, ravines, or cracks in rocks. With access to this water, the tree cools the hot environments in which it grows, thus producing fresh and pleasant habitat for many animals that shelter in its shade during periods of intense heat.

The mountain or rock fig (“Anjeer Kohi”, انجیر کوهی, in Persian) is a wild variety, tolerant of cold dry climates, of the semi-arid rocky montane regions of Iran, especially in the Kohestan Mountains of Khorasan.

Ecology

Ficus carica is dispersed by birds and mammals that scatter their seeds in droppings. Fig fruit is an important food source for much of the fauna in some areas, and the tree owes its expansion to those that feed on its fruit. The common fig tree also sprouts from the root and stolon tissues.

The infructescence is pollinated by a symbiosis with a fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes). The fertilized female wasp enters the fig through the scion, which has a tiny hole in the crown (the ostiole). She crawls on the inflorescence inside the fig and pollinates some of the female flowers. She lays her eggs inside some of the flowers and dies. After weeks of development in their galls, the male wasps emerge before females through holes they produce by chewing the galls. The male wasps then fertilize the females by depositing semen in the hole in the gall. The males later return to the females and enlarge the holes to enable the females to emerge. Then some males enlarge holes in the scion, which enables females to disperse after collecting pollen from the developed male flowers. Females have a short time (

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